If boaters had a university it would have a Faculty of Firelighting and we'd duke it out in the corridors with our competing visions of 'how it should be done'. Here's one good way of lighting a long-lasting, low-cost fire in a stove using smokeless coal. Other opinions are also available.
- A small firelighter lump OR three or four dry sheets of newspaper, not-too-tightly scrunched up.
- Dry kindling.
- Good-quality smokeless coal, such as Homefire - preferably but not necessarily dry. (Avoid poor-quality smokeless coal - it may be a bit cheaper but it doesn't burn well and it'll take more of your time and money in the long run.)
- A match.
Every stove is different but here's a general guide...
Getting the fire ready
- Clear the grate of ash and empty the ash pan. Any half-burnt bits of fuel can stay on the grate - they help - but not so much that air can't get through easily.
- Your stove should have a bottom draught and a top one. Open both. If there's a flue damper, make sure that's fully open, too.
- Build the fire by laying the scrunched-up paper or firelighter on the grate and covering with kindling; criss-cross the sticks.
Getting the fire going
In a nutshell, you're trying to get the fire to temperature quickly, which means giving the kindling a lot of air and not adding coal until the wood is really hot.
- Light the firelighter or paper and close the door (some stove models are supposed to be started with the door about an inch ajar).
- Wait for about five minutes, when you should hear the fire 'roaring' and showing a strong flame. By this time, the kindling should have turned completely black, but not be falling apart.
- Pour on a layer of coal, one or two pieces deep. Any more than this risks choking the fire.)
- Close the door and wait, to let the fire get back up to temperature. If your fire is the light-it-with-the-door-slightly-open type, then leave it slightly open for another few minutes, then close it.
- After about 15-30 minutes, depending, you'll feel the fire chucking out heat, the coals will be glowing red on their undersides, and the whole shebang will have more or less stopped smoking, which tells you that the fuel is now burning hot and efficiently. You should hear the fire quietly roaring away but watch it doesn't overheat (i.e. if it's uncomfortable to stand near it).
- Now the fire's hot it doesn't need a lot of air any more. Close or partially close the bottom draught, leaving the top draught open. This will keep the fuel burning slowly and steadily.
- Now leave it alone. Don't poke it about, stoke it up, or worry it with a stick. If you do, the coal will collapse in on itself and stop the air from flowing through the fire.
Having got the fire going, the coal will then 'bank', which means it'll cover with a layer of ash and burn slowly and steadily for anything between 8 and 18 hours, depending on how efficient your stove is.
So, you can leave the fire going overnight - make sure it's safe to do so. In the morning, you should be left with a little light and fluffy ash in the ash pan. If the fire wasn't burning efficiently you'll find a lot of coarse ash.
- If it's very cold outside then you can top up with coal after step 5, but don't add more than one layer of coals at a time as that will take all the heat out of the fire and generate a lot of smoke for passers-by to breathe in. Whenever you add more coal, open the bottom draught to get the fire back up to temperature - otherwise it won't burn well.
- If your fire takes a long time to get the fire to temperature, start it with more kindling.
- Sluggish fires - which produce little heat but a lot of smoke and ash, and burn up a lot of fuel - are often caused by adding coal too early or adding too much at once.
- If your stove is an older make, then never leave the boat or go to sleep with the bottom draught fully open, some of these stoves can turn red-hot and set your home on fire.
- Whatever stove you have, always make sure the door is fully closed before you go to sleep, otherwise you could gas yourself.
Reviving the fire
If you go out during the day then you might as well let the fire slowly die out - it's very expensive to keep running when you're not around.
But if you need to revive the fire before it goes out:
- Poke the fire to shake off the ash and clear the airway. If necessary, empty the ash pan.
- Open the bottom draught and flue damper.
- Add a small amount of coal and close the door until it catches, then add more coal to create a layer two pieces deep. If the embers look like they're struggling to stay alive, you can first add one or two sticks of kindling.
- Continue as if you were making a new fire, as above.
As soon as you stick a poker in to a well-banked fire, the heat rushes out, the half-burnt ash falls into the ash pan, and the coal stops burning efficiently, so it's best to wait as long as possible before interfering with it, but without letting it go out.
Disposing of the ash
Burnt ash can look cold and still be hiding a few hundred degrees of heat.
- Coal ash is toxic - let it cool in a metal bucket or similar and deal with it as you would household rubbish.
- Wood ash is ok for plants in small quantities, so can be left in a hedge once it's cooled - better that than send it to the landfill.
You can get stove-top themometers for about £15. These tell you when the fuel is burning efficiently/inefficiently and also when the fire's burning too hot. Life can still go on without one of these gadgets, though.
Another goodie is an eco-fan. These stove-top fans turn the fire's heat into an electrical charge, which powers a fan to circulate the fire's output around the cabin, increasing the efficiency of the fire. They work very well but cost about £80.
Flues and carbon monoxide
Carbon monoxide can't be seen or smelled - it has killed boaters overnight.
Fit a detector. Your gas appliances are more likely than your stove to be a problem, which is why they should be thoroughly checked in the boat safety examination, but in any case fit a carbon-monoxide detector. The simplest sort is cheap and doesn't require any batteries - it just changes colour. Other models (£10-£30) will set off an alarm if there's a problem - more useful if you're asleep at the time.
Clean the flue. Every year you should clean out your flue to improve the draught and reduce fire risk (the oils and ash in your flue can set on fire). It only takes a couple of minutes with a flue brush, like a great big pipe cleaner: borrow one from a neighbour or get your own from a chandlery.
Keep an eye on the flue seals. If you can see smoke or firelight escaping then your fire is probably leeching deadly carbon monoxide and is not burning efficiently (the stove needs a partial vacuum inside it to work well). Stove cement and flexible heat-resistant stove sealant are available from 'real fire' shops and good chandleries.
Beware CO in ash. Fires give out most carbon monoxide when they're on the wane and turning to ash. Hot ash gives off a lot of CO, so leaving the stove door open to get that last bit of heat and leaving hot ashes in a pan under your fire both belong in the 'living dangerously' column.
But sleep well! If you look after your fire and treat the stove well, you should never have problems with CO.
And finally, all stoves can suffer from down-draught, which is when an evil gust of wind pushes the smoke and gases down your chimney and into your living room. It's caused by a rapid change in wind direction, which increases the air pressure at the top of the flue and reduces it in the boat cabin, so the stove finds it easier to push the gases into the boat than up the flue. The problem is common on very windy days in built-up areas or near trees etc. Boats can be susceptible due to the flues on our stoves being shorter than in a house.
You can cure it by using a taller chimney, which will also help your fire to burn more efficiently. If that isn't possible, then you can reduce it a lot by opening a small window on EACH side of your boat (and maybe at each end, too); this will mean that air sucked out of one side of the boat can be replaced quickly by air coming in from the other side. Obviously, if it's very cold outside then this isn't ideal, but once the fire is burning at temperature the problem should go away - the high heat in the flue is enough to stop the gases coming back down the pipe.